Friday, August 23, 2019

Cold War Politics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Cold War Politics - Essay Example Calling war a ‘savage human behavior’ the general reiterates the importance of establishing an effective security policy; a term that obviously cannot be used interchangeably with a ‘war policy’. It should be noted that a security policy does not necessarily act as a cause of war. In fact, war is decided by the quality of interaction between nations and their eagerness to reach an agreement. (p. 209) General Marshall makes allusions to the World War II to elaborate upon this aspect however, the most interesting point remains that he describes the institution of war from the perspective of Germany and Japan only; the very nations that constituted the opposing side of the Second World War. He states that war is the doctrine of Japan and Germany; the people, who he believes have given a lot of thought to this. Though, his speech was meant to shed light on the lessons that the United States learned as a result of the Second World War, however, comically enough the first half of the speech sounds more or less like an attack on the central powers; the side that not only suffered a humiliating defeat in the great war but were also heavily penalized. Though, the penalty is nothing compared to the number of lives that were lost but stigmatizing an entire nation does nothing to help either. General Marshall seeks to get approval to shape their military strategy and security policy as a mode of protecting America and its citizens from aggressive nations such as Germany and Japan. He makes several statements that not only implicate Japan and Germany as the sole perpetrators of war but also portrays America as a helpless nation. This aspect of Marshall’s speech depicts that the history of war is in fact framed by its victors that largely portray themselves as the innocent party.

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Theories of counseling and psychotherapy Essay Example for Free

Theories of counseling and psychotherapy Essay 1.1 Defining the Core Constructs of Adlerian Therapy. When Gina says she is determined, Dr. Carlson asks her where her determination is directed. What is his intent? Gina responds with happiness. Her own and her two boys. His intent is to get her to focus on the good and the progress made. He trying to scaffold the sessions questioning to determine more information and to promote client self awareness. His intent is as well for her to see the goal setting nature she internally is projecting. He is demonstrating a life style assessment and the ability for one to control where they want or see themselves. The use of open ended questions allow Gina to elaborate to gather more information. Why would Dr. Carlson tie Ginas motivations back to her parents? Dr. Carlson is following Adlerian’s theory that our future choices are driven by past experiences. By tying Gina’s motivations to her parents he is to showing her future behavior decisions were molded by mother and father through actions that she witnessed as a child. What basic life tasks does Gina describe in this footage? Gina describes the life tasks of occupation,love and social interests. Happiness,eventually a committed relationship and that her boys grow up to be happy and make good choices. Gina is demonstrating achievement of HIs intent is to scaffold the sessions questioning to determine more information and to promote client self awareness. He is also trying to activating the goal setting nature she internally is projecting. He is demonstrating a life style assessment and the ability for one to control where they want or see themselves. The use of open ended questions allow Gina to elaborate to gather more information.,competence and mastery. Theses are three of the lifestyle components Alder speaks about in his theory. 1.2 Conceptualizing Clients Using Adler’s Holistic Approach Dr. Carlson identifies patterns in Ginas early recollections. What do these patterns tell us about Ginas private logic? Gina’s private logic depends on what she viewed in her surroundings that she remembered. The lifestyle she was exposed to allowed her to develop her own compass to live by. It is hard to remember for her but Gina realized she had been doing things for herself to make herself happy rather than anyone else. Such as her obtaining the top ten in her class. Dr. Carlson suggests that Gina is almost selfish to a fault. What part does selfishness play in wellness and pathology, according to Adler? According to Alder, being selfish in regards to wellness and pathology, is natural. We are to become a contributing part of a larger social system. Gina is adapting to basically meet her needs and the needs she thinks are qualities of a â€Å"good† parent. Her feeling that is her responsibility to raise her children and a home is all on her and not letting her husband help is not really a good thing but a coping mechanism she has developed to handle situations. 1.3 Assessment and Treatment in Adlerian Theory In his clip, Dr. Carlson focuses on Ginas early recollections. What important assessment information is he seeking through his questions? Dr Carlson is seeking through his questioning the understanding of her lifestyles and how she viewed the world through asking her to elicit her memories of her siblings. He can also be trying to get a view of the family dynamic through using these types of questions. What elements of the treatment process can you identify in this clip? I can identify phase two, lifestyle assessment as a child, understanding of the person and the problem. Family constellation,birth order and earliest recollections priorities and ways of behaving are indicators of this phase. 1.4 Adlerian Therapeutic Techniques (Written case study) In what ways might an Adlerian therapist ask Steve to Act As If’? An  Adlerian therapists’s may as Steve to â€Å"Act as if â€Å" as follows; †¢Open questioning †¢Purposeful questioning By using questions being with â€Å"what† and â€Å"how† a counselor can elicit a response leading toward understanding or self awareness,self motivation and a level of self disclosure. References Seligman, L., Reichenberg, L. W. (2014). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: Systems, strategies, and skills / Linda Seligman, late professor emeritus, George Mason University, Lourie W. Reichenberg, licensed professional counselor, Falls Church, Virginia.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Drug Trade in South America Essay Example for Free

Drug Trade in South America Essay Among the many topics given for the annotated Bibliography, I have decided go by my teachers advice. Therefore, I will cover â€Å"drug trade in South America†. South America is a large continent comprising of countries like, Argentina, Colombia, Chile, Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru, Uruguay, Ecuador and Venezuela among many others. The whole of this continent has been noted to be a primary source for narcotics, which in most cases end up finding their way to the rest of the world, with Colombia being the number one Heroine producer in the whole South America continent. The contents favorable climatic conditions allows for the mass growing of cocaine, heroine, and bhang producing plants. This widespread growth of these plants is practiced in the fertile lands along the many permanent rivers which criss-cross the continent e. g. Amazon River basin. These rivers also offer drug transportation alternative, whereby private boats transport these drugs across the borders of countries. The fight against drug cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale in the continent has done little to this deep-rooted vice. This is because of overwhelming rates of corruption across the continent. Another reason has been the chronic political instability of many countries of South America. The majority of the continents countries are largely under developed and therefore proper Government machinations to combat drug trafficking has not really been to the expected standards. In my map, I have shown the whole continent of South America with its physical features included to show the drug growing areas. The tropical rain forests the Amazon River basin. Through my research I hope to extract the mystery about the resistant drug producing culture, the various governments efforts to combat drug trafficking and some of the major drug cartels in the continent. International narcotics control strategy report 2006 Bureau for international Narcotics and law Enforcement Affairs This report complied by Bureau for international Narcotics and law Enforcement Affairs, March 2006, gives a detailed account of the state of affairs, pertaining drugs in more than ten countries of S. America. The journal is so detailed that it shows out a brief summary each of the ten countries drug trafficking levels, countries drug rating status, countries actions against drugs 2005, countries law enforcement efforts and arrest made, and lastly, countries road map towards combating drug trafficking. From article, it is clear that the continent produce almost all the prohibited drugs i. e. heroine, cocaine, marijuana, these drugs are grown almost all the eleven countries discussed in the article, with Colombia being the leading in production of all these drugs. Also in this article is the environmental safeguarding measures applied when destroying drugs. The article shows the rating of every country among the countries of the world. This journal has very many details about drug cultivation manufacture, distribution and selling making it a very informing tool to the relevant authorities who are responsible for the crackdown of the illegal cartels. I further recommend the journal to both potential and practicing law enforcers, to fellow students who may be taking the same course, this journal is the kind of research material they need to look for. It convinces a reader that, with all that knowledge about the existence of drug trafficking then curbing it is very simple. The author of this journal (bureau for international narcotics and law enforcements affairs) is the body charged with the duty of drawing regulations and the enforcement of the laws governing illegal drug trafficking, and therefore the information in it is very much reliable as a source for this topic.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Historical Perspectives on the Social Order

Historical Perspectives on the Social Order Laura Sanchez Ronald P. Bobroff In The Radicalism of the American Revolution, Gordon Wood showed the various transitions that the American society had to go through in order to achieve a sense of equality in a socio-economical level and with respect to the government. In the book, Wood starts talking about how American society looked like at the beginning, how it was basically a replica of what people knew at the time; a monarchy-like Estate, derived in some form of aristocracy since there was no king ruling in the continent, but back in England. In this early Estate, the status quo was important to maintain and show in order to reflect power and social position, where work was seen as something not worthy of doing by the higher classes because they already had the financial resources and did not feel the need of produce them through labor activities. Since labor activities were seen as something lower classes needed and should do in order to gain resources to live. Because the higher classes, the Gentry, were the only independent group, because they did not have to answer to anyone, they were the ruling class, but the lower classes had to answer to the ruling classes because they had to work for the money that was provided by the higher classes. Even when the American society enjoyed some freedoms that the English society could not enjoy, the inequalities were still present, since the level of freedom people could enjoy was given by the social status they had and enjoyed. But again, this was the replica of what they knew as a socio-political system. In America, it was clear that because the Gentry did not have to work for the financial resources they already had, for it was clear that they were to lead and the rest, to follow. From this aristocratically estate of government, American society made its way to a less hierarchical society, where equality of opportunity was the main character, where every person was born with the same rights and where every man had the equal opportunity to become a gentleman based on their level of education. This was in the reality a rough equality, since they were still valuing people based on the property owned. According to Wood equality lay at the heart of republicanism; it was, said David Ramsay, the life and soul of commonwealth. Republican citizenship implied equity. Citizen (or sometimes cit) was a term that had been commonly used by the premodern monarchical society. It generally had meant the inhabitant of a city or town, who had been thus distinguished from a member of the landed nobility or gentry[1]. Then, it came the idea of a ruling class composed by disinterested gentleman, this idea came up because the alternative was interested gentleman who were to rule obey ing their own particular interests, but if the leading class had no particular interest they were to rule more equally and impartially to everyone instead than just for a few. The problem here is that this model of being ruled by disinterested gentleman would be replicating the past and with that, replicating the old problems. Since this disinterested gentleman were also human beings with their particular interests to work for, even when they claimed not to have any particular interest. With this new concept of equality, and in reality those who claimed to be disinterested and those on the higher social classes were not more capable to rule than the rest of the population who had access to the same opportunities. The problem with this approach is that it generates and feeds conflict of interests, because no matter who is in a leading position is undeniably going to promote policies that will benefit their own interests or the interests of the people close to them; resulting in an unbalance of the social and political system. This opened the way for a democratic political system, where ordinary people could being involved in the government, in contrast with the previous forms of government that were attempted where only the gentry could aspire to be in charge of a leading position on the government, like a perpetuation of the aristocracy, because if gentlemen were involved in the marketplace and had interests just like everyone else, they were really no different from all those common people artisans, shopkeepers, traders, and others who had traditionally been denied a role in political leadership because of their overriding absorption in their private occupational interests. In short, the Anti-Federalists were saying that liberally educated gentlemen were no more capable that ordinary people of classical republican disinterestedness and virtue and that consequently there was no one in the society equipped to promote an exclusive public interest that was distinguishable from the private interests of peo ple[2]. The great achievement of this time is that the motivation of the people to participate on the government had really changed from maintaining the status quo to open the positions equally to every person in the society, transitioning almost without realizing into a democracy. By contrast with this new increasing openness in the American society, we find a British society which was open to foreign nationals looking for refuge, but this openness of the British government to receive foreign nationals into their space was not seen well by other European countries and by British nationals as well. This is why, some British nationals, called themselves anarchists, decided to promote and commit terrorist acts on British soil as a form of rising their voices and make the statement of their inconformity with this policy of giving refuge to other people. They wanted to keep Britain for themselves, so while other countries were opening their boundaries to welcome other nationals, other ideals, religions, and a complete new rainbow of possibilities; there were groups in Britain, as is explained in the novel The Secret Agent, as well in other countries that were not happy with this kind of policies, that took their nationalism feelings and ideals to another level full of hate and incomprehension that led them to commit acts of terror and treason to their own soil. Because, in the end, this people, the anarchists, were not democratic. This anarchist group decided to attack Greenwich observatory, the center of the modern world, sending a clear message of how anti progress they felt, because instead of promoting and applauding the progress they attacked it. Being objective, if they only were against the laws, policies or even the political system and beliefs, they would have attacked some political, judicial or governmental institution, but they needed to state that they were not only against the policies but against any form of progress, and nothing claims more progress than science. Because science is the fundament of the progress of humankind; moreover, I am a civilized man. I would never dream of directing you to organize a mere butchery, even if I expected the best results from it. But I wouldnt expect from a butchery the results I want. Murder is always with us. It is almost an institution. The demonstration must be against learning science. But not every science will do. The attack must have all the shocking senselessness of gratuitous blasphemy[3] And, wanting to close the borders to people of foreign countries because some nationals of a given country feel insecure about it, is an inhumane act full of hate, prejudice and resentment. This anarchists could not being democrats because they were firm believers of the socialist doctrine, that is by mere concept anti progress. Democracy is about progress, that is why throughout history it is often seen that democracy is the last form of government achieved after having tried and passed for all others, because its core is almost perfect and can be only achieved through trial and error; after seen what should and should not be done. Democracy is about liberties, not debauchery as people often misunderstand it. Democracy is about equality of opportunities, people cannot be forced to do something they do not want to, but they have the right of having equal opportunities to access the minimal conditions to live and to live well. If someone is w orking hard and is not getting involved or interfering with other peoples life, it does not matter where that person is from. That individual person is a human being and has the right to live and to live well, and to work, and to not being afraid of being attacked by another person. This is the kind of society that Wood explain to us, this is the fundament of the openness of American society. They were open to everyone who was disposed to work hard and live a good life based on their work. And that is what is translated nowadays in what is called the American dream, it is just another name for the principal fundament of the American democracy. B3. Benedict Anderson in his Imagined Communities suggests ways that the citizens of a nation perceive themselves as a part of the whole as a community developing some sort of spirit that overcomes them and that is able to overlap the individuality of each one, this is what is called nationalism; a sense of belonging to something bigger than oneself. He explains this when he says that the members of even the smallest nation will never know most of their fellow-members, meet them, or even hear of them, yet in the minds of each lives the image of their communion[4]; meaning that what really matters is the idea of belonging, the feeling to be part of something bigger than the sense of individuality. Is the idea of being a valuable member of the whole. Anderson also explains the it is not only the sense of belonging, but it goes further to the sense of limitations, because human beings do not like to think that everyone has the same without having fought for it; meaning, that it is important to feel that there are some boundaries that somehow contain this massive feeling of community; because even the largest of them, encompassing perhaps a billion living human beings, has finite, if elastic, boundaries, beyond which lie other nations. No nation imagines itself coterminous with mankind. The most messianic nationalists do not dream of a day when all the members of the human race will join their nation in the way that it was possible, in certain epochs, for, say, Christians to dream of a wholly Christian planet[5]. In the end, we need to feel part of something that even though it is bigger than us it is finite; something that no one else has it and that it cannot be found elsewhere, something that belongs to us so that there is the i dea that it is special and therefore that generates in the human mind the urgency to defend it. Another important concept is sovereignty, which is the power conferred by independence. Not having atavistic ties that create and maintain ties to the past, gives way to the progress of a nation and with it, the progress of its citizens who feel part of it. Because the concept was born in an age in which Enlightenment and Revolution were destroying the legitimacy of the divinely-ordained, hierarchical dynastic realm. Coming to maturity at a stage of human history when even the most devout adherents of any universal religion were inescapably confronted with the living pluralism of such religions, and the allomorphism between each faiths ontological claims and territorial stretch, nations dream of being free, and, if under .God, directly so. The gage and emblem of this freedom is the sovereign state.[6] This is extremely important because the sense of progress brings with it a new meaning to the concept of freedom. At this point, we found citizens who have well identified their sense o f belonging to something larger than them as mere individuals, who need to feel that they belong to something unique and special, that not everyone can have access to and that is worth fighting for; Accompanied by the ideas of freedom and progress. Finally, Anderson explains that in spite of the inequities that have existed in the world historically, nowadays the feeling of nationalism has generated that the human beings feel part of a horizontal whole where all are equal and fight every day for a common goal and that they are able to fight for this, not necessarily with the disposition to kill for this but with the will to die defending that for what they believe and live; because, regardless of the actual inequality and exploitation that may prevail in each, the nation is always conceived as a deep, horizontal comradeship. Ultimately it is this fraternity that makes it possible, over the past two centuries, for so many millions of people, not so much to kill, as willingly to die for such limited imaginings[7]. For it generates the idea of horizontality as Anderson explains, that is to say that there are no longer any social classes that command over other social classes. That all are born equal and have access to the same rig hts and opportunities because they all are human alike. And they are willing to go to the last consequences in order to defend it. Comparing these four ideas about nationalism as a sense of belonging to a whole with what Gordon Wood explains in The Radicalism of the American Revolution, United States, already composed of more and more diverse peoples, could not rely on any tribal or national identity. To be an American could not be a matter of blood; it had to be a matter of common belief and behavior. And the source of that common belief and behavior was the American Revolution: it was the Revolution and only the Revolution, that made them one people.[8]. The sense of belonging for American people needed to be greater than language, political views, religion or national origin; the sense of being part of this great nation needed to go further, to the point that all people, national and foreign, feel the need to defend the ideals in which this nation is built. This nation, with well delimited boundaries, that has been pioneering in subjects of freedom, equality and horizontality, meaning that all people are equa l under the unit of the American flag, provided they are willing to respect and work for it, to defend the ideals it represents. Works Cited Wood, Gordon S. The Radicalism of the American Revolution. (New York, Vintage Books, 1991) Conrad, Joseph. The Secret Agent. (Oxford Worlds Classic, 2008) Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities. (New York, Verso / New Left Books, 1996) I pledge that I have acted honorably. Laura Sanchez [1] Wood, Gordon S. The Radicalism of the American Revolution. (New York, Vintage Books, 1991), 223 [2] Wood, 256 [3] Conrad, Joseph. The Secret Agent. (Oxford Worlds Classic, 2008), 25 [4] Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities. (New York, Verso / New Left Books, 1996), 7 [5] Anderson, 7 [6] Anderson, 8 [7] Anderson, 8 [8] Wood, 336

My Philosophy of Education Essays -- Educational Educating Teaching Es

My Philosophy of Education â€Å"Your school work is much better today, Mr. Teddy Bear. I’m glad to see you’ve been paying attention.† I have spoken these kinds of words many of times during my youth, as I pretended to live out my dream of being a teacher. Lining up my stuffed animals and dollies, I would go over the daily lecture with my attentive class, making up homework and grading papers with the greatest of joy. These memories motivate me to fulfill my dream of preparing students for a live after high school, opening up the world of literature, and succeeding in ways my previous teachers did not. Because Literature is my passion, I plan to graduate from Concord College with a degree in English Education. After graduation, I would like to get my feet we teaching or substitution at a middle or high school while I apply to graduate schools. I hope to continue doing this while I take graduate classes so that I may gain experience in the education field. I hope to get my masters to that I can eventually become a college professor of literature. I have also toyed with the idea of acquiring my doctorate. I believe that English is a subject that all students need a firm grip upon to succeed in the real world. Reading and writing are major skills that everyone should possess because they can either move a person forward or hold a person back. Obviously, reading is important because we are faced with this requirement day after day. Whether it is road signs, cooking instruction, mailing addresses, or television advertisements, reading is something that a person cannot escape. Speaking properly is also very important because one can be judged by how well they speak. In simple terms, it ... ...tion is extremely important, because it instills important knowledge where it is lacking, so that a person can function properly in the real world. Without basic educational knowledge, a person can become alienated from society, and left to feel embarrassed. The possession of good education had become so dire that it is required for almost any occupation, especially one that is highly respected. As a teacher, I hope to convey basic English skills, critical thinking skills, and basic values that will remain with my students throughout their lives. In short, I have always dreamed of becoming a teacher, and with every day my desire grows. Teachers mold students, who are our future, so we must prepare them well. After all, would you want an uneducated person running our country or performing open heart surgery? I think we can all agree on that answer.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Hackers :: social issues

Hackers â€Å"...they are still hardly criminal in nature. The intention of most of these individuals is not to destroy or exploit systems but to learn in minute detail how they are used and what they are used for. The quest is purely intellectual, but the drive to learn is so overwhelming that any obstacle blocking its course will be circumvented. Unfortunately the obstacles are usually state and federal laws on unauthorized computer access...† This is a quote from Chris Goggans who was once a member of the hacker Legion of Doom club. On-line he was known as â€Å"Erik Bloodaxe†.1 The term â€Å"hacker† was first used in the nineteen sixties to describe college students at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The students were given this title because of their obsession with computers. They couldn’t get enough of computers. â€Å"Hacker† was a label of pride to these students. These first hackers did things such as probe systems to find out how they worked and how to make it give out secrets just as hackers do today. They believed computer time and software should be free and freely shared and resented those who protected ownership. A surprising aspect of hackers is that they actually had rules of their own of what they could do to others files and what they could not do. These rules said no one was to erase, damage, or change anyone’s files. One last rule that they had was no using any one system for personal gain. Surprisingly, most of the hackers followed these guidelines.. Now over the years, â€Å"hacker† is a label stating competence and knowledge to meaning someone who breaks into computers. With this information we now have the knowledge that hackers are older and do not have ethics and morals as they used to. The old rules have been forgotten and the FBI has made it’s own definition of a typical hacker: 1. Eighteen to thirty-five years old. 2. Usually male. 3. Bright and highly motivated. 4. The first workers on the job in the morning. 5. The most trusted employees on the job. There is an operation known as â€Å"salami slicing†. This is a form of data diddling that occurs when an employee steals small amounts from a large number of sources through the electronic changing of data. Just like slicing thin pieces from a roll of salami. Some hackers fall upon their information on accident.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Lessons Learned from Nathaniel Hawthornes The Scarlet Letter Essay

Lessons Learned from The Scarlet Letter      Ã‚  Ã‚   The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne is considered by many to be a classic novel. In The Scarlet Letter, Hawthorne provides his audience with a real sense of the consequences of unconfessed sin, isolation from society, and the presence of evil everywhere. Through his portrayal of the main characters, his choice of setting, and his implied moral lessons, he teaches lessons that must be learned for humans to continue living in harmony with one another.    The setting of The Scarlet Letter provides a powerful connection between fact and fiction. Events such as the Salem witch trials, which occurred not long after the events of The Scarlet Letter, establish credibility for Hawthorne in that recounting historical details such as fear of witches makes him seem like he actually knows what he is talking about. Hawthorne's writing style has made him "one of the most widely read nineteenth century authors" (Jacobson 4). He upholds Puritan values and concepts while employing the classic allegorical characters of romanticism. One such Puritan value is that the devil resides in the forest. Anytime characters in The Scarlet Letter enter the forest, it is certain that something terrible just happened, is happening, or will happen soon. One such example is when the governor's sister, who is suspected of witchcraft, enters the forest and invites Hester to go with her. It is this woman who represents the idea that evil exists everywhere, especially among those who refuse to acknowledge its existence. Salem is a particularly intriguing setting because of its witch infamy. The occurrence of the witch trials in Salem creates an atmosphere where the evil and the right... ... Hawthorne's allegorical approach at real life situations provides his readers with a sense of accomplishment: a sense that if they learn lessons from others, then they will not have to learn from first hand experience. Although on the surface it may seem like another tale of Puritanistic virtue, The Scarlet Letter is the embodiment of life itself. After reading this novel, one may find that many events in real life today can relate directly to events in The Scarlet Letter.    Works Cited and Consulted:    Chase, Richard (1996). "The Lessons of the Scarlet Letter." Readings on Nathaniel Hawthorne (pp. 145-152). San Diego: Greenhaven.      Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter. New York: St. Martins, 1991.      Jacobson, Gary. The Critical Response to Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter. New York: Greenwood, 1992.